Accurate electromagnetic simulation and measurement of millimeter-wave inductors in bulk CMOS technology

TitleAccurate electromagnetic simulation and measurement of millimeter-wave inductors in bulk CMOS technology
Publication TypeConference Paper
Year of Publication2010
AuthorsKraemer M, Dragomirescu D, Plana R
Conference NameSilicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems (SiRF), 2010 Topical Meeting on
Date Publishedjan.
Keywordsbulk CMOS technology, circuit simulation, CMOS integrated circuits, electromagnetic induction, electromagnetic measurement, electromagnetic simulation, EM simulator, equivalent circuit model, equivalent circuits, inductance, inductor test structure, inductors, integrated circuit modelling, integrated circuit testing, low resistivity silicon substrate, millimeter-wave inductor, millimetre wave integrated circuits, mm-wave inductor, Q-factor, quality factor, radio frequency integrated circuit, spiral inductor, transmission line, transmission lines

In radio frequency integrated circuits (RFICs) that use a low resistivity silicon substrate, spiral inductors show advantages in performance and size with respect to transmission lines, even at millimeter-waves (mm-waves). Design guidelines to create mm-wave inductors and equivalent circuit models describing them exist in literature. However, these models need to be parametrized either from test-structure measurement or electromagnetic (EM) simulations. This paper complements previous work by discussing problems that arise when trying to accurately determine the spiral's parameters as inductance and quality factor. Firstly, it provides guidelines for obtaining accurate and consistent results using different kinds of EM simulators. Secondly, the issue of accurately measuring the fabricated inductors by de-embedding test structure parasitics is discussed. The results obtained from measurements are compared to the simulation results of an inductor test structure, confirming the validity of the considerations before.